Gayle H. Jaeger, DVM, MSpVM, DACVS
Osteoarthritis can result from direct trauma to the joint or cartilage, injury to ligaments or soft tissues resulting in joint instability, obesity or developmental disease. The effect of osteoarthritis varies, with a wide range of severity and associated radiographic and clinical signs; however, resultant discomfort and activity restrictions can have a profound effect on quality of life.
Juvenile orthopedic diseases are a common cause of lameness and discomfort in young animals. A patient's signalment, history and complete physical examination are necessary to localize the disease, establish differential diagnoses and develop a diagnostic plan.
Juxta-articular fractures are fractures occurring near the joint surface. They may be intra- or extra-articular.
Gunshot wounds can be a common injury in veterinary medicine varying from shotgun and rifle injuries in rural areas to handguns and air powered weapons in cosmopolitan areas. The severity of injury resulting from gunshots is variable as well based on the type and composition of the bullet, the projectile (flight) characteristics, kinetic energy absorbed on impact and tissues involved.