What exercises are best for dogs that have been recumbent for an extended period?
“Dogs recovering from an extended period of recumbency have very low endurance. This is because the first fibers lost when a muscle is immobilized are the slow-twitch fibers, most common in muscles of posture or gravity-resistance. Early endurance work for these patients may involve little more than assisted standing, with a focus on postural muscles rather than on the cardiovascular system.”
-Janet Van Dyke, DVM