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When presented with a case of inappropriate urination, be sure to ask the owners specific questions that will help guide your rule-out list and focus your diagnostic test selections. Define the clinical signs along with some possible differentials.
A. Frequent, large-volume urination-pyelonephritis; drug effect; metabolic or endocrine disease
B. Frequent, small-volume urination-lower urinary tract infection/inflammation
C. Straining to urinate-obstruction in the bladder (trigone) or urethra
D. Blood in the urine-bladder calculi or crystalluria; thrombocytopenia; upper or lower urinary tract inflammation
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