Karen M. Tobias, DVM, MS, DACVS
Urolithiasis can cause 15 percent to 21 percent of lower urinary tract problems.
Congenital portosystemic shunts usually are single vessels that develop inside or outside the liver (Photo 1). Because these vessels carry blood around the liver instead of through it, the normal hepatic processes of metabolism, storage and production are disrupted.
Congenital portosystemic shunts (PSS) occur in 0.18 percent of all dogs, and are particularly common in Yorkshire Terriers, Maltese dogs, Pugs, Schnauzers and Shih Tzus.
The articles in this symposium provide an overview of indications, techniques, and complications related to a variety of gastrointestinal surgical procedures.
Veterinarians routinely deal with lacerations, bite wounds, and mass removals in small-animal practice. When wound closure becomes difficult because of the location of the wound or the size of the mass, however, even the most confident veterinarian can be intimidated by the prospect of these surgeries.