Barrak Pressler, DVM, PhD, DACVIM
Dr. Barrak Pressler lays out the case for administering ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor blockers.
Download this suggested protocol for treating proteinuria in dogs.
For most diagnostic tests, the 'titer' is the minimum dilution of a substance that is required to yield a positive result. For example, for detection of anti-Leptospira sp. Antibodies, the titer is the dilution of serum which still causes microbes to crosslink.
In human medicine, fever of unknown origin (FUO) is defined as pyrexia of greater than two to three weeks duration (i.e. sufficient time for self-limiting infections to resolve) during which repeat physical examinations and standard diagnostic testing have failed to reveal an underlying cause.
Dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP) usually present with platelet counts low enough to be considered life-threatening, although overt signs of bleeding are uncommon. Owners usually only note anorexia or lethargy, although in some cases epistaxis, cutaneous bruising/petecchi?/echymoses, or oral bleeding may be noted.
Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia is one of the most common reasons for referral to veterinary internists. The most common presenting complaint is that the patient is inadequately responding to appropriate imunosuppression.