Jana Gordon, DVM, DACVIM
Insulin has become increasingly important in the treatment of dogs and cats with diabetes mellitus. Almost all dogs are classified with insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes mellitus.
The pancreas has both endocrine and exocrine functions. The endocrine pancreas consists of the islets of Langerhans and is particularly important to carbohydrate metabolism.
Icterus is a term used to describe the clinical appearance of hyperbilirubinemia. While reference values may vary, in most instances a serum bilrubin > 1 mg/dl is considered abnormal but clinically detectable icterus usually does not occur until the bilirubin is > 3 mg/dl.
Dogs and cats frequently present for signs related to the urinary tract. These signs may be due to inappropriate urination (house soiling or urinary incontinence) or may relate to the act of voiding itself.