Bernie Hansen, DVM, MS, DACVIM, DACVECC
Trauma is perhaps the most instantly recognizable cause of acute pain in man and animals and is a common cause of critical illness.
"Acute abdomen" is widely understood by clinicians as a potentially serious syndrome that is typically accompanied by spontaneous and evoked behavioral signs of pain.
In spite of the fundamental importance of auscultation to the physical exam, there has been surprisingly little effort made to teach and standardize how the examination is performed, how to interpret results, and how to communicate those results between professionals.
When presented with animals with evidence of renal dysfunction (as evidenced by elevated serum creatinine concentration), there are a few considerations.
Critical care includes around-the-clock nursing and support for vital organ function.
It is important to remember that pain is an experience, not a neurologic process.