Canine clinical cases (Proceedings)


Clinical reproductive case studies.

Case #1


  • 18 month old female intact Plott hound, "Donna"

  • Bloody discharge that started approximately 4 1/2 weeks ago

  • Discharge has increased and decreased during this time

  • This is the first heat, and the owner would like to breed her

Clinical findings

  • HR, RR, temperature normal

  • Weight: 57 pounds

  • Bloody vulvar discharge


  • Proestrus

  • Estrus

  • Endocrine Producing Ovarian Tumor

  • Cystic Ovaries.

  • Exogenous Estrogens

Possible diagnostics

  • Vaginal Cytology

     o Is the reproductive tract normal?

  • Progesterone Assay

     o Has progesterone started to elevate?

  • LH concentration: No Value!

  • Estradiol

     o No more value than a cytology!

  • Ultrasound of the reproductive tract

     o Rarely of value, except to locate follicular like structures or tumors on the ovaries

  • Karyotyping: Not indicated

  • CBC, profile, urinalysis

     o May be performed if indicated

  • Thyroid panel

  • Radiographs

     o Unnecessary

  • Laparoscopic examination or exploratory laparotomy may be considered

     o Rarely of value in a bitch with these signs!

Diagnostic test findings

  • Vaginal Cytology

     o Normal proestrous/estrous cytology

Differential diagnoses

  • Proestrus - Too long for normal proestrus

  • Estrus - Not typical of normal estrus

  • Endocrine Producing Ovarian Tumor - Rare

  • Exogenous Estrogens - Watch the clover and birth control pills!


  • Cystic Ovaries

     o Diagnosis based on history (proestrus should not last over 18 days), and vaginal cytology

     o History must rule out exogenous estrogens!


  • Miberolone

     o 18 mcg/lb for 5 to 10 days

  • Testosterone

     o 2 mg/kg up to 30 mg?

  • Ovaban - Megestrol acetate

  • hCG - 500 to 1000 units/animal


  • GnRH

Expected results

  • Our treatment with hCG is 95% successful

  • Signs decrease within 5 days and should be gone by 14 days

  • Two treatments are 100% successful

Case #2


  • 20 month old female intact Chinese Crested, "Tina"

  • Tina was mated to a male Beagle by accident

  • One previous litter, no problems

  • Owner wishes to terminate pregnancy

Clinical findings

  • HR, RR, and temperature is normal

  • Weight: 6 pounds

  • Slight serous discharge from the vulva

Differential diagnoses

  • Proestrus

  • Estrus

  • Pregnant from Mismating

  • Non Pregnant from Mismating

Possible diagnostic tests

  • CBC, Profile, U/A: No Value

  • Vaginal cytology

     o Look for presence of sperm and evidence of estrus

  • LH Assay: No Value

  • Ultrasound: Little to no value

  • Radiograph: No Value

  • Progesterone Assay

Diagnostic test findings

  • Vaginal Cytology

     o Sperm Present on Cytology

     o Signs of estrus present

  • Progesterone Assay

     o 11 ng/ml

Differential diagnoses

  • Proestrus

     o Progesterone indicates estrus

  • Estrus

     o In estrus and had ovulated when bred!

  • Pregnant

     o Wait and See

  • Non Pregnant

     o Wait and See

Diagnosis – mismated: Treatment

  • Recommended ultrasound exam of Tina at 25 to 30 days from suspected time of ovulation based on progesterone concentrations

  • If pregnant

     o ECP?

     o NO, NO, NO

  • Prostaglandin F2Alpha

     o Excellent, inexpensive

  • Ovariohysterectomy

     o Best for nonbreeders

  • Ergots (??????????)

Expected results

  • 100% effective

  • Just continue treatment until fetuses disappear!

Case #3


  • 4 ½ month old intact Yellow Labrador Retriever, "Lady"

  • Vulvar discharge with duration of one month

  • Dog licks the vulvar area

  • Appears to go outside to urinate more often

  • Discharge is mucoid

Clinical findings

  • HR, RR, temperature are all normal

  • Weight: 35 pounds

  • Physical exam within normal limits except slight vulvar discharge

Differential diagnosis

  • Metritis

  • Pyometra

  • Vaginitis

  • Cervicitis

  • Vaginal Tumors

Possible diagnostic tests

  • Vaginal cytology

     o Determine if inflammatory or infectious process is present

  • Vaginal culture

     o Only if cytology deems it is warranted

  • CBC/profile

     o Limited value

  • Brucella screening test?

  • Ultrasound

     o Limited value

  • Radiographs

     o Limited value

Diagnostic test findings

  • Cytology

     o Numerous WBC

  • Culture

     o Streptococcus sp. Sensitive to ampicillin


  • Metritis

     o Too young

  • Pyometra

     o Has not had a heat

  • Vaginitis

     o Possible and common

  • Cervicitis

     o Rare in the bitch and rarer in the young non-bred bitch

  • Vaginal tumors

     o Rare in a dog this young


  • Vaginitis-prepubertal


  • Local antibiotic therapy

  • Premarin-weak estrogen

     o 20ug/kg

     o 0.625 mg tab/60 lbs twice a week

Expected Results

  • Recovery is approximately 95%

  • Stubborn cases may require retreatment or reculturing and using a different antibiotic

  • May disappear after a normal estrus

Case #4


  • 9 ½ year old coon hound, "Seeker"

  • Blood in urine and ejaculate

  • Used for breeding since he was 2 and up until he was 8

  • Few other health problems

  • Owners wish to use him again

Clinical findings

  • HR, RR, temperature were all normal

  • Weight: 48 pounds

  • Prostate is enlarged and normal division between lobes is absent

  • No pain on palpation

  • Blood in ejaculate appears during the middle portion of collection


  • Prostatitis

     o Hypertrophy of the prostate

     o Acute Infectious Prostatitis

     o Chronic Infectious Prostatitis

     o Prostatic Cancer (?)

Possible diagnostic tests

  • Examination of ejaculate

     o Possible testicular degeneration

  • CBC/Profile

     o Little value since little systemic signs

  • Brucella

     o Always a good idea since he is a breeder

  • Testosterone concentration: Little value

  • Culture of prostate: Limited value initially

  • Urine culture: Probably no value

  • Ultrasound of prostate: May be of value

Diagnostic findings

  • Examination of the ejaculate

     o 12% primary abnormalities

     o 35% secondary abnormalities

     o Total number of cells within normal limits


  • Hypertrophy of the prostate

     o Fits the history of blood without systemic signs or pain

  • Acute Infections Prostatitis

     o No increased temperature or pain

  • Chronic Infectious Prostatitis

     o No recurrent epidsodes of pain, or other indications of a chronic infectious condition


  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy


  • Castration: Only true treatment

  • Ovaban (magestrol acetate)

     o 0.25 mg/lb/day for at least 45 days

  • Proscar

     o 1 mg/kg/day for at least 4 months

  • Estrogens

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