The testis can be affected with several types of tumors.
The testis can be affected with several types of tumors. They cause enlargement of testicle(s). Palpation of the testis reveals a mass or change in shape of the testis. An ultrasonographic examination indicates a change in density. Other signs may include feminization and alopecia. The most common tumors found in the testis include the Sertoli cell tumor, which can cause feminization, attraction of male dogs, loss of libido, alopecia, and decreased sperm number and quality. Other tumors include the seminoma and the interstitial cell tumor. The fertility is affected by pressure and temperature changes occurring within the scrotum. It is, therefore, important to diagnose early and remove the affected testis before damage occurs to the remaining normal testis. Treatment is, therefore, hemicastration.
Testicular degeneration is common in dogs over 5 years of age. The diagnosis is made by testicular palpation with the affected testis softer than normal and by evaluation of a semen sample. The testes may be smaller than normal. The semen will have increased primary abnormalities and decreased concentration. The treatment is primarily hormonal therapy if any and is usually unsuccessful. FSH and hCG are the two frequently used hormones for this purpose. Testicular biopsy should be performed before treatment to determine the extent of degeneration. Karyotyping is indicated to see if it is an intersex individual if history of normal size and functional capability of the testes is lacking.
In every case of epididymitis, one should always think brucellosis first because it is a zoonotic disease. The diagnosis is made by palpation, ultrasonographic examination, and fine needle aspirate of the epididymis. Pain may be present during the palpation. The only successful treatment for this condition is hemicastration. Generally by the time palpable lesions are present, the ducts of the epididymis are blocked.
Problems of the spermatic cord include primarily torsion and artery to vein shunts. Both of these conditions are uncommon. Diagnosis is based on initial severe pain and swelling. Treatment can include surgery to correct the position and suture if performed early enough following occurrence. Hemicastration can be performed if the testicle is ischemic and nonfunctional. An AV shunt also has swelling in the scrotum above testicle and can be difficult to differentiate from a hernia. Ultrasonographic examination is excellent for differentiation.
Abnormalities of the penis include persistent penile frenulum, fracture of os penis, balanoposthitis, phimosis, paraphimosis, priapism, and thromboembolism of cavernous venous tissue. The most frequently occurring of these conditions is priapism and paraphimosis. Treatment needs to be as soon as possible and is supportive in nature as the longer the condition is present the poorer the prognosis.
Diseases of the prostate are rare in all domestic animals except the dog, in which older intact males are commonly affected. Primary conditions affecting the canine prostate include acute prostatitis, chronic prostatitis with or without abscess formation, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), neoplasms of the prostate, squamous metaplasia, prostatic and paraprostatic cysts, and prostatic calculi. More than 60% of intact male dogs over the age of four years will have one of these prostatic problems, with the percentage increasing with age. The most common abnormality affecting the prostate has reportedly been benign hyperplasia or bacterial prostatitis, with all other conditions accounting for less than 10% of prostatic diseases.
Benign hyperplasia is due to an endocrine influence on the growth of the prostate gland, sometimes causing the prostate to double or triple in size. Bacterial prostatitis is a chronic or acute bacterial condition of sexually intact male dogs. It is not known whether bacterial prostatitis precedes, follows, or develops simultaneously with infection of the bladder.
The history of dogs with prostatic disease entails some combination of the following abnormalities: difficulty defecating, stranguria and dysuria, urinary incontinence, recurrent UTI's, blood or purulent material in the ejaculate, ejaculatory failure, blood in the urine, blood dripping from the penis unassociated with urination, and purulent or hemorrhagic urethral discharge. Systemic signs predominate if acute prostatitis or prostatic abscess is present.
Dogs suspected of having prostatic disease should have a thorough physical examination and palpation of the prostate. Sexually intact male dogs over 5 years of age should have a rectal examination of the prostate, even in the absence of clinical signs, to detect asymptomatic enlargement of the prostate due to BPH. Enlargement of the prostate and/or change in character of the prostatic tissue (consistency, irregularity) are the hallmark changes found during palpation in dogs with prostatic disease.
Diagnostic tests used to determine the definitive diagnosis in cases of canine prostatic disease include CBC to determine the presence of substantial leukocytosis, cytology and culture of prostatic fluid collected in ejaculate or following prostatic massage, urinalysis, and urine collection. Prostatic imaging with abdominal radiographs and ultrasonography in conjunction with samples for cytology from fine needle aspiration and needle or surgical biopsy often permits a definitive diagnosis. The most effective treatment for reduction of prostatic size and secretions in dogs with prostatic disease is castration, but this is not an option in animals used for breeding.
Signs of acute infectious prostatitis include vomiting, diarrhea, bloody discharge, temperature of 104°F, slight dehydration and prostatic pain. An increase in white blood cells and inability to ejaculate are also common. Chronic infectious prostatitis signs include recurrent bouts of prostatitis, breeding problems detected as lack of fertility, enlarged prostate, decreased motility of sperm, inability to ejaculate, and the presence of blood in the urine and ejaculate.