Thomas K. Graves, DVM, PhD, DACVIM
Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the United States and worldwide. Despite major public health initiatives spanning several decades, human obesity has reached prevalence rates nearing 40% in some states.
Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease ) is most common in dogs between 2-7 years of age. Breeds predilections include Standard Poodles, West Highland White Terriers, Rottweilers, Great Danes, Leonbergers, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers, Portuguese Water Dogs, and Bearded Collies.
There are many different types of insulin that vary with species of origin and with chemical modifications and formulations that affect onset and duration of action. Porcine insulin, which is identical to canine insulin in its amino acid structure, is available for use in dogs in some countries, but, unfortunately, no specific feline insulin formulation is currently available.
Icterus occurs when bilirubin accumulates in the plasma and tissues to the extent that it causes visible yellow discoloration of the sclera, mucous membranes, and skin.
Hyperaldosteronism is uncommon in dogs, but may be more common in cats than previously thought. Disorders of aldosterone deficiency have been recognized in combination with general adrenocortical insufficiency (Addison's disease), and will not be discussed here.
Recognizing hypertension in cats with hyperthyroidism is not always simple. In normal cats, measurement of blood pressure is fairly reliable, whether using oscillometry or Doppler ultrasonography.1 Both correlate well with intra-arterial measurements.2 The "white coat effect", however, is not always recognized in feline medicine, and this effect may well be more pronounced in cats with hyperthyroidism than in less stressed normal cats.