• One Health
  • Pain Management
  • Oncology
  • Anesthesia
  • Geriatric & Palliative Medicine
  • Ophthalmology
  • Anatomic Pathology
  • Poultry Medicine
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Dermatology
  • Theriogenology
  • Nutrition
  • Animal Welfare
  • Radiology
  • Internal Medicine
  • Small Ruminant
  • Cardiology
  • Dentistry
  • Feline Medicine
  • Soft Tissue Surgery
  • Urology/Nephrology
  • Avian & Exotic
  • Preventive Medicine
  • Anesthesiology & Pain Management
  • Integrative & Holistic Medicine
  • Food Animals
  • Behavior
  • Zoo Medicine
  • Toxicology
  • Orthopedics
  • Emergency & Critical Care
  • Equine Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pediatrics
  • Respiratory Medicine
  • Shelter Medicine
  • Parasitology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Virtual Care
  • Rehabilitation
  • Epidemiology
  • Fish Medicine
  • Diabetes
  • Livestock
  • Endocrinology

Adjunctive analgesic drugs: beyond NSAIDS and opioids (Proceedings)

Article

The framework of effective pain management systems rests solidly on the foundation of recognition/assessment, pre-emption, and using multiple modalities. Multiple modalities allow for intervention at several different places of the nociceptive pathway, increasing effectiveness and minimizing the need for high or protracted doses of any one particular drug.

The framework of effective pain management systems rests solidly on the foundation of recognition/assessment, pre-emption, and using multiple modalities. Multiple modalities allow for intervention at several different places of the nociceptive pathway, increasing effectiveness and minimizing the need for high or protracted doses of any one particular drug. It is well-established in human medicine, for example, that the use of adjunct medications will minimize the use of PCA (patient-controlled analgesia) opioids with a resultant decreased incidence of adverse effects such as nausea and constipation.

Chronic pain is not merely acute pain of extended duration. Rather, it is a maladaptive state whereby the discomfort transcends the original injury or stimulus, and becomes instead an innate feature of the central nervous system. Normal nociception is replaced by a constellation of microanatomic, physiologic, and molecular changes both centrally and peripherally, which result in an increased sensitivity to both noxious and non-noxious stimuli.

Ketamine

A phencyclidine dissociative anesthetic, the evidence is building for its pre-emptive and preventive effects when given at subanesthetic doses in an intravenous constant rate infusion. Ketamine binds to a phencyclidine receptor inside the NMDA receptor, i.e. the calcium channel would already have to be open and active for ketamine to exert its effect. However, once bound, it decreases the channel's opening time and frequency, thus reducing Ca+ ion influx and dampening secondary intracellular signaling cascades. Hence it is unlikely (and has not been shown) to be truly analgesic in nature. Rather, it appears to be protective against hyperalgesia and central hypersensitization in the post-operative setting., including in the dog.

Local anesthetics

Local anesthetics were once a mainstay of pain management in veterinary medicine, and may now be one of the most under-utilized modalities. They exert their action by binding to a hydrophilic site within sodium channels, thereby blocking it and disallowing the Na+ influx; thus neurons may not depolarize and thus the effect can be complete anesthesia to a site rather than mere analgesia. Various local anesthetics will have variable onsets and duration of action, and they may be combined for a rapid and extended effect. The locality of administration is often limited only by the clinician's ability to learn various utilities and anatomic landmarks; few are outside the scope of any clinician to master. They include, but are not limited to local line or paraincisional block, regional blocks such as carpal ring, dental nerve, and intercostal blocks, subcutaneous diffusion blocks, testicular blocks, intra-articular blocks, epidurals, transdermals (EMLA, Lidoderm). Lidocaine administered intravenously has been shown in humans to speed the return of bowel function, decreases postoperative pain, minimize opioid consumption, and shorten the hospital stay after abdominal surgery Systemic, intravenous infusion of lidocaine has also been shown to elicit a sustained effect on neuropathic pain in humans, and may have a specific point of action in the brain.

Gabapentin

Gabapentin is labeled for use as an anti-convulsant drug but is in widespread human use for its analgesic properties. While structurally similar to GABA, it is not a direct agonist, although it may have indirect effects on GABA metabolism such as increasing intracellular stores. Another leading hypothesis is that it exerts effect through interaction with the alpha-2-delta subunit of the voltage gated calcium channel. In a study of women undergoing hysterectomy, only the patients receiving both NSAID and gabapentin were completely satisfied with their post-operative pain management, when compared to women receiving either NSAID or gabapentin alone, and in a meta-analysis of 896 patients undergoing a variety of surgical procedures, gabapentin significantly reduced pain at both 4 and 24 hours post-op when compared to placebo. Pharmacokinetic studies in dogs reveal that it may have a half-life of 3-4 hours in the dog suggesting a TID administration schedule. The primary adverse effect in dogs appears to be somnolescence (as in humans) which usually will spontaneously resolve over a few days acclimation time.

Gabapentin has become a popular in human medicine since its introduction in 1994 for many chronic and neuropathic pain conditions. However, a TID administration schedule may be difficult to sustain long-term, and no veterinary studies are currently published on its use. However, anecdotally, BID administration does appear to achieve a clinical effect in dogs. Interestingly, in a rat model there is recent evidence a gabapentin-like analog has reduced the development of experimental osteoarthritis. The adverse effect of somnolescence can be mitigated by starting off at quite low doses and tapering upwards. Pregabelin (Lyrica) is new generation compound, labeled for use in diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia; its utility in animals remains unknown at this time.

Amantadine

NMDA receptor antagonism remains a research focus for chronic pain in humans, but no clinical studies report on its use for osteoarthritis. Amantadine is an anti-viral (influenza-A) compound use in humans as for treatment of Parkinson's disease due to its dopaminergic effects, and is reported to exert an analgesic effect through NMDA receptor antagonism. One study in dogs with osteoarthritis demonstrated greater improvement over 12 weeks of treatment with amantadine with meloxicam, compared to meloxicam alone. Toxicity and kinetic studies have been performed in humans, but not in dogs. Anecdotally in dogs and cats, diarrhea is commonly noted and agitation less frequently.

Tricylcic antidepressants

TCA's exert their analgesic activity by blocking norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT) reuptake in the dorsal horn synaptic cleft of inhibitory neurons that have descended from the medulla oblongata and mesencephalon; this allows these inhibitory neurotransmitters to exert a prolonged and more pronounced effect. Since depression (pain-related and otherwise) is also mediated through NE and serotonin, patients may have benefit of TCA's from these co-existing but distinct mechanisms. Other additional effects include interaction with NMDA activity and sodium channel blockade. As a class, TCA's are a first-line medication for neuropathic pain in humans, and amitryptiline is the most commonly used TCA in both humans (primarily for diabetic neuropathy) and animals (primarily for chronic feline interstitial cystitis). It has a balanced NE and serotonin effect, and thus is among the more sedating, anti-cholinergic, and effective of various TCA's. Newer TCA's such as duloxetine (Cymbalta) developed for diabetic neuropathy have more strict serotonin (i.e. NE-sparing) activity, diminishing their adverse effects; its clinical use in animals has not been documented. TCA's should not be used with other serotoninergic medications such as tramadol.

DMOAA

Disease-modifying osteoarthritic agents are products that are not FDA-approved medications or are not known to have a primary analgesic mechanism of action, or both, but which seem to have a positive influence on patients with osteoarthritis. The polysulfated glycosaminoglycans exert their action by inhibiting collagenase and promoting the formation of fibrocartilage, which should have the dual effect of improving the clinical status of the patient as well as slowing the course of osteoarthritis. While not entirely a settled matter in humans, evidence is beginning to accumulate that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin (not either one used alone) exerts a positive structure-modifying effect on the cartilage, thus interfering with the progression of OA. The only FDA-approved drug in this category is Adequan, which in the author's hands has a more rapidly demonstrable and reproducible effect than oral supplements. Adequan may be administered (off-label) via a subcutaneous route with similar bio-availability as the IM route, allowing it to be dispensed for the owner to give at home. This decreases considerably the cost and inconvenience to the owner, which in turn adds greatly to compliance. The author also uses it regularly (off-label, currently) in cats.

Bisphosphonates

Neoplasia remains a special subset of patients suffering from chronic pain, with osteosarcoma as the prototype in dogs. Certainly soft-tissue inflammation, necrosis, nerve compression, lymphatic obstruction are all indirect contributors to cancer pain. With osteosarcoma, pathology to the periosteum is a direct contributor to the pain associated with this type of cancer. Tumors may also secrete a number of bioactive molecules which sustain and enhance the nociceptive pathways in ways distinct from other sorts of chronic inflammatory conditions. Lastly, our therapeutic interventions may elicit pain as well. For this reason, it is important to access the practitioners' entire pain-modulating arsenal, and where possible, at the higher end of tolerated doses (e.g. tramadol, gabapentin). The anti-neoplastic effects of certain NSAIDs in humans and in dogs have been well-established and appear to be mediated through the up-regulation and over-expression of the COX2 enzymes in some neoplasms of these species. It is unknown across what spectrum of other NSAIDs, species, and neoplasms this effect might occur; in fact most of the neoplasms evaluated in cats have little if any COX2 expression. However, NSAID in cancer pain would seem to exert a positive benefit if only by its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. Bisphosphonates are compounds which may palliatively alleviate OSA-related pain by decreasing osteoclast activity and inhibiting calcium and phosphorus dissolution, with pamidronate in most common use for dogs. Infusions are given approximately once weekly in patients whose owners elect to forgo surgery and chemotherapy. Anecdotally, 60% of dogs will be responsive within a week, and about half of those will be durable i.e. > 4 months; it appears most effective when administered as part of multi-modal therapy. Nephrotoxicosis is reported to be a limiting adverse effect. Oral opioids were once considered to be generally poorly absorbed, short-acting, and prone to tolerance and adverse effects. While their long-term use in animals is currently limited, methadone and newer extended-release and transmucosal opioids, as well as novel opioid combinations which minimize constipation, may have a role in palliative care and break-through cancer pain (see above). Recent studies in a rat model suggest pain resulting from bone neoplasia is better attenuated by systemically-administered delta- (rather than mu) opioids.

Systematic reviews of neuropathic pain in humans recommend a treatment algorithm, regardless of etiology, that includes drugs of first choice tricyclic anti-depressants, gabapentin, and opioids. However, these papers are drawn mainly from trials involving diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia, conditions yet to be documented in animals, and effectiveness of these medications has not been demonstrated for the most common neuropathic pain condition in humans, lumbar radicular pain (sciatica).

References

Bell RF, et al. Perioperative ketamine for acute postoperative pain. Chochrane Database Syst Rev 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD004603

Bell RF, et al. Peri-operative ketamine for acute post-operative pain: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005 Nov;49(10):1405-28. Review

Elia N, Lysakowski C, Tramèr MR. Does multimodal analgesia with acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and patient-controlled analgesia morphine offer advantages over morphine alone? Meta-analyses of randomized trials. Anesthesiology. 2005 Dec;103(6):1296-304

Subramaniam K, Subramaniam B, Steinbrook RA, Ketamine as adjuvant analgesic to opioids: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review. Aesth Analg 2004 Aug;99(2):482-95

Turan, A et al Gabapentin: an alternative to the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors for perioperative pain management. Anesth Analg. 2006 Jan;102(1):175-81.

Ketamine: Does Life Begin at 40? IASP Pain Clinical Updates, Carr DB, ed. XV:3, June 2007

Slingsby LS, Waterman-Pearson AE, The postoperative analgesic effects of ketamine after canine ovariohysterectomy – a comparison between pre- and post-operative administration. Res Vet Sci. 2000 Oct;69(2):147-52

Carpenter RE, Wilson DV, Evans AT, Evaluation of intraperitoneal and incisional lidocaine or bupivacaine for analgesia following ovariohysterectomy in the dog, Vet Anaesth Analg. 2004 Jan;31(1):46-52.

Groudine SB, Fisher HA, et al. Intravenous lidocaine speeds the return of bowel function, decreases postoperative pain, and shortens hospital stay in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy Anesth Analg. 1998 Feb;86(2):235-9

Koppert W, Weigand M, et al Perioperative intravenous lidocaine has preventive effects on postoperative pain and morphine consumption after major abdominal surgery Anesth Analg. 2004 Apr;98(4):1050-5

Cahana A, Shvelzon V, et al. Intravenous lignocaine for chronic pain: an 18-month experience. Harefuah. 1998 May 1;134(9):692-4, 751, 750

Cahana A, Carota A, Montadon ML, Annoni JM. The long-term effect of repeated intravenous lidocaine on central pain and possible correlation in positron emission tomography measurements. Anesth Analg. 2004 Jun;98(6):1581-4

Longmire DR, Jay GW, Boswell MV. Neuropathic Pain. In: Weiner's Pain Management, A Practical Guide for Clinicians, 7th ed. Boswell MV, Cole BE ed. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton FL 2006, p. 305.

Turan, A et al Gabapentin: an alternative to the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors for perioperative pain management. Anesth Analg. 2006 Jan;102(1):175-81.

Hurley RW, Cohen SP, et al, The analgesic effects of perioperative gabapentin on postoperative pain: a meta-analysis. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006 May-Jun;31(3):237-47

Vollmer KO, von Hodenberg A, Kölle EU. Arzneimittelforschung. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of gabapentin in rat, dog and man. 1986 May;36(5):830-9.

Solak O, Metin M, et al, Effectiveness of gabapentin in the treatment of chronic post-thoracotomy pain, Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007 Jul;32(1):9-12. Epub 2007 Apr 17

Ahn SH, Park HW. Gabapentin effect on neuropathic pain compared among patients with spinal cord injury and different durations of symptoms. Spine. 2003 Feb 15;28(4):341-6; discussion 346-7

Rowbotham M, Harden M. Gabapentin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1998 Dec 2;280(21):1837-42

Backonja M, Glanzman RL. Gabapentin dosing for neuropathic pain: evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clin Ther. 2003 Jan;25(1):81-104

Lascelles BDX. Drug therapy for acute and chronic pain the cat. Int J Pharm Compounding. 2002;6:338-343.

Boileau et al, Oral treatment with PD-0200347, an alpha2delta ligand, reduces the development of experimental osteoarthritis by inhibiting metalloproteinases and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression and synthesis in cartilage chondrocytes, Arthritis Rheum 2005 Feb; 52(2):488-500

Fisher K, Coderre TJ, Hagen NA. Targeting the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor for chronic pain management. Preclinical animal studies, recent clinical experience and future research directions. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;20:358-373.

Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook, 5th ed. Plumb DC, Blackwell Publishing Limited, 2005

Lascelles BDX, Gaynor J, Smith ES. Evaluation of Amantadine as Part of a Multimodal Analgesic Regimen for the Alleviation of Refractory Canine Osteoarthritis Pain, World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress Proceedings, 2007

Vernier VG, Harmon JB, Stump JM, et al. The toxicologic and pharmacologic properties of amantadine hydrochloride. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1969;15:642-665

Finnerup NB et al, Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: an evidence based proposal, Pain 2005: 118:289-305

Longmire DR, Jay GW, Boswell MV, Neuropathic Pain, In: Weiner's Pain Management, A Practical Guide for Clinicians, 7th ed. Boswell MV, Cole BE ed. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton FL 2006, p. 300

Chew DJ, Buffington CA, Kendall MS, et al. Amitriptyline treatment for severe recurrent idiopathic cystitis in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1282-1286.

Longmire DR, Jay GW, Boswell MV, Neuropathic Pain, In: Weiner's Pain Management, A Practical Guide for Clinicians, 7th ed. Boswell MV, Cole BE ed. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton FL 2006, p. 306-7.

Bruyere O, Reginster JY, Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate as therapeutic agents for knee and hip osteoarthritis, Drugs Aging, 2007; 24(7):573-80

Altman RD, Dean DD. Therapeutic treatment of canine osteoarthritis with glycosaminoglycan polysulfuric acid ester. Arthritis Rheum. 1989 Oct;32(10):1300-7.

Gupta, RA; DuBois, RN. Colorectal cancer prevention and treatment by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2. Nature Reviews Cancer 2001; 1: 11-21

Knapp, DW; Richardson, RC; et al. Piroxicam therapy in 34 dogs with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 1994; 8: 273-278

Mohammed SI, Kahn KN, et al Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and 2 in naturally occurring canine cancer Ptrostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004 70:479-83

Beam SL et al An immunohistochemical study of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in various feline neoplasms, Vet Pathol 2003 40:496-500

de Lorimier LP, et al. Evaluating the biochemical safety and potential efficacy of serial pamidronate administration in 21 tumor-bearing dogs (abstr), in Proceedings. Veterinary Cancer Society 22nd Annual Conference 2002:34.

Fan, TM, et al, Evaluation of intravenous pamidronate administration in 33 cancer-bearing dogs with primary or secondary bone involvement, J Vet Intern Med. 2005 Jan-Feb;19(1):74-80

Personal communication, Louis-Philippe de Lorimier, Hôpital Vétérinaire Rive-Sud, Brossard (Québec), Sept. 2007.

Brainin-Mattos J, Smith ND, et al. Cancer-related bone pain is attenuated by a systemically available gamma-opioid receptor agonist. Pain 2006 122(1-2): 174-181.

Finnerup NB et al, Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: an evidence based proposal, Pain 2005: 118:289-305

Related Videos
© 2024 MJH Life Sciences

All rights reserved.