Case 13



Olivia is a 2-year-old spayed female terrier mix.


Olivia's owner reports that for the last two weeks Olivia has been having urinary accidents in the house and seems uncomfortable when she urinates. The owner has not seen blood in the urine nor Olivia straining to urinate. Olivia also wants to go outside more often and urinates large volumes.

The owner has also noticed that Olivia seems less active during the last three months. Olivia had always been a rambunctious dog, but she now sometimes acts dopey, according to the owner. She explains that Olivia intermittently seems sleepy and uninterested in playing or moving much. These periods only last a short while, and the owner has not seen loss of consciousness or seizure-like activity. Olivia's appetite is normal, and she has not exhibited vomiting or diarrhea.

Olivia also lives with a 5-year-old beagle that appears to be in good health. Olivia receives a monthly flea, tick, and heartworm preventive and no other medications. She has had no environmental changes, known toxin exposure, or recent travel. In the last month the owner changed both dogs' diet from a premium commercial brand adult dog food to a grocery store brand.

Physical examination findings

  • Olivia is quiet but alert and responsive.

  • Temperature = 100.9 F (38.8 C), pulse = 110 beats/min, respiration = 46 breaths/min

  • Weight =  15 lb (6.8 kg)

  • BCS =  5/9

  • Heart and lung sounds are normal

  • You note some mild discomfort when palpating Olivia's caudal abdomen. The urogenital area appears grossly normal.

  • The rest of the physical examination findings are normal.

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