Sherri J. Ross, DVM, PhD, DACVIM
Fluid therapy is one of the most important aspects of patient management in veterinary medicine. It is however, important to realize that fluid therapy is a supportive measure and the underlying disease process that lead to aberrations in water, electrolyte and acid-base status must be identified and treated.
Acute renal failure may be defined as an abrupt reduction in renal function resulting in accumulation of nitrogenous waste products and dysregulation of water, electrolyte, and acid base balance. Differentiating acute from chronic kidney disease is important for both therapeutic and prognostic reasons.
The clinical signs of many lower urinary tract diseases (LUTD) in dogs and cats are similar. Correct identification of the underlying disease process is critical to the development and implementation of a successful treatment plan.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common clinical diagnosis in middle-aged to geriatric cats and dogs that may significantly affect the quality of life of both the patients and their owners. Although "old age" is not a disease, it is a time when many diseases are more likely to occur, often concurrently.
Successful management of urolithiasis in dogs and cats depends upon the removal of existing uroliths and preventing their recurrence. Traditionally, uroliths have been removed via surgery.
Anemia is a common clinical finding in both human and veterinary patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Anemia has been reported as a clinical complication in 80-90% of human dialysis patients, and in 32-65% of cats with CKD.