R. Avery Bennett, DVM, MS, DACVS
One of the main reasons for neutering exotic pet mammals is to control reproduction. Medical and behavioral indications are also important factors to consider in making a decision to have a pet neutered.
The respiratory system of birds is significantly different, both physiologically and anatomically, from that of mammals.
Foreign body (FB) ingestion is particularly a problem in ferrets less than one year of age. Young ferrets enjoy chewing on and ingesting soft rubber such as latex or foam rubber, cork, and occasionally cloth material.
In order for AI-PMMA beads to produce a positive outcome, many factors must be taken into consideration.
A simple ventral midline celiotomy provides limited exposure to most abdominal organs in birds. The liver, pancreas and intestines are accessible through this approach.
Rabbits have 6 incisors (4 upper and 2 lower). The 2 first incisors are large and oppose the lower incisors.