Margaret V. Root Kustritz, DVM, PhD, DACT
Brucella canis is a non-motile, Gram negative coccobacillus with a host range limited to domestic and wild canids. Stray dog populations may act as a reservoir. There is a higher reported prevalence in purebred animals but few studies have attempted to compare populations of owned and stray dogs.
Ovariohysterectomy and castration are the surgeries most commonly performed by small animal practitioners in the United States. Exhaustive reviews of the benefits and detriments of gonadectomy at various ages have been published. This is a brief review of the literature to inform decisions regarding best age at which to perform castration or ovariohysterectomy in dogs or cats.
Sterilization = any procedure that makes an individual incapable of reproduction - Castration and vasectomy are reported techniques in males and ovariohysterectomy, ovariectomy, and tubal ligation are reported techniques in females. Castration and ovariohysterectomy are the most common surgical sterilization methods in the United States.
Cats (Felis catus) live outdoors on every continent except Antarctica and on islands of every size, either as natural or introduced species. Because cats are loosely domesticated, with freedom to roam considered acceptable by cat owners in many countries, it is difficult to classify cat populations as owned, stray, or feral.