Katrina Lafferty, BFA, CVT, VTS (Anesthesia)
A clinic or veterinary facility planning to see critical exotic animal cases needs to do some homework.
Poorly managed pain, whether before, during, or after anesthesia, can have a number of harmful consequences.
Anesthetic patients should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis and an anesthetic protocol created for the individual situation.
The 4th vital sign: pain.
Pain management in veterinary patients has come a long way.