Jonathon Bach, DVM, DACVIM, DACVECC
Transfusion products are commercially available through various commercial vendors, or practitioners can utilize staff or client owned pets as blood donors. Because of the continued increases in demand and repeated shortages, having an internal source is important.
Patients with respiratory distress are often frail and excessive stress may progress to respiratory arrest. Non-invasive techniques are essential to avoid exacerbation of tenuous circumstances. One must rely upon abridged and fragmented physical examinations in the most serious cases, accurate historical information, and noninvasive diagnostics.
Thrombophilia (hypercoagulability or prothrombotic state) is a complex disorder with a diverse and multifactorial pathogenesis that results in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. It is well-recognized as a frequent and serious cause of morbidity and mortality in people. It appears less prevalent in dogs and cats for several reasons.
Stress Starvation: lack or absence of calories and protein (absolute or relative) compounded by physiologic stress associated with illness or injury.
Fluid therapy remains one of the essential components of critical care medicine with the goal being to restore intravascular volume. Several choices are available to optimize the treatment of these patients and controversy will undoubtedly continue. Crystalloids have many advantages including they are widely available, inexpensive, have minimal effects on the coagulation system, and do not cause allergic reactions.
Nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections (HAI) are defined as infections that occurred during hospitalization. HAI lead to increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Rates of HAI vary by country, region, and facility.