Jennifer L. Davis, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, DACVCP
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been a mainstay of veterinary analgesia for many years. They are frequently used for the treatment of lameness, abdominal pain, inflammation, and fever.
Opioids are classically used for analgesia in cases of moderate to severe pain. They can have other uses and effects, however. Sedation, calming/euphoria, and chemical restraint can all be achieved through opioid use in animals.
The veterinary practitioner may be involved in some cases where pain management with NSAIDs or opioids is not possible due to the unacceptable risk of adverse effects.
Antimicrobial drugs are the most frequently prescribed drugs in veterinary medicine. They are also frequently used incorrectly, which can lead to treatment failure and the development of resistant bacteria.
This class of antibiotics includes the penicillins, the cephalosporins, and the carbapenems. They have excellent activity against most gram-positive bacteria, and very few associated side effects.
Treatment failures can occur due to the presence of resistant bacteria, such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pseudintermedius, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, or vancomycin resistant enterococci