Gregory F. Grauer, DVM, MS, DACVIM
Dr. Gregory Grauer discusses what causes this abnormal result, including a new culprit that pet owners may be giving as a treat.
Dr. Gregory Grauer addresses which drugs commonly used in dogs and cats are potentially nephrotoxic.
Dr. Gregory Grauer weighs in on whether NSAIDs can be used in dogs with liver or kidney disease.
Persistent proteinuria of renal origin is an important marker of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats. Unfortunately, due to the high incidence of false-positive results for proteinuria on the urine dipstick screening test and proteinuria associated with lower urinary tract inflammation, positive reactions for urine protein are quite common and therefore often disregarded.
By altering pre-glomerular resistance, healthy kidneys can maintain relatively stable glomerular capillary pressures despite variations in systemic blood pressure. This process is termed "renal autoregulation". Autoregulation can be reduced when renal disease results in loss of nephrons.
Azotemia is defined as increased concentrations of urea and creatinine (and other nonproteinaceous nitrogenous substances) in the blood. The interpretation of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations as a measure of renal function requires a knowledge of the production and excretion of these substances.