Cynthia Ward, VMD, PhD, DACVIM
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) are common endocrinopathies in dogs that often occur simultaneously in the same patient. Diagnosis and management of concurrent disease may be a challenge to the practitioner since many clinical signs of DM and HAC are similar.
Pathogenesis: Insulin-dependent, non-insulin dependent, and transient
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis--classic endocrine feedback loop
Thyrotoxicosis is a term used to describe any condition in which there is an excessive amount of circulating thyroid hormone whether from excess production and secretion from an overactive thyroid gland, leakage from a damaged thyroid gland, or from an exogenous source.
Ketone bodies: acetoacetate, beta hydroxybutyrate, acetone
Hyperadrenocorticism is a common endocrinopathy in middle to older aged dogs. Common clinical signs to make the clinician suspicious of hyperadrenocorticism include polyphagia, polyuria/polydipsia, pyoderma, pot bellied appearance, and persistent urinary tract infections.