Benjamin Brainard, VMD, DACVA, DACVECC
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation (CPCR) refers to specific attempts to revive patients who have suffered a cardiac or respiratory arrest, or who otherwise have experienced a severe drop in perfusion pressure (e.g. due to pulseless ventricular tachycardia).
Central venous catheters are catheters that are inserted so that the tip of the catheter rests within a central vein, usually the cranial or caudal vena cava. These catheters are usually longer catheters, with a larger gauge, and may be inserted either peripherally or centrally.
Shock defines a state of inadequate oxygen delivery to the tissues of the body. This can result from decreased tissue perfusion, or from inadequate blood oxygen content.
The purpose of close physiologic monitoring of critically ill patients is to alert clinicians and nurses to acute changes in patient status. In addition, the monitoring of various parameters can provide a means to assess patient responses to specific therapeutic interventions.
The use of intravenous fluids in the emergency room is essential to the proper resuscitation and support of the critically ill patient. Knowledge of the different types and qualities of the available intravenous fluids will allow clinicians to tailor choices to individual patients.
Triage refers to a systematic evaluation of body systems, and is designed to facilitate identification of the most life-threatening problems first. In the emergency room, or even in the waiting room, patients with life-threatening abnormalities require timely intervention, and may trump other less critical patients for veterinary attention.