By providing a standardized scheme for terminology, diagnosis, and staging of canine and feline liver disorders, WSAVA is contributing to the improvement in the quality of care provided by veterinarians for dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease.
In ideal cases, treatment of hepatobiliary cases is based on biopsy, when indicated. Although not all clients will be willing to follow this diagnostic test, I think it is important to make this recommendation.
Physalloptera nematodes are an uncommon cause of chronic vomiting in dogs and uncommon to rare cause in cats. Since the ova are difficult to consistently find using fecal flotation the true importance is likely underestimated.